Chemokines are Underestimated in Preventing the Metastasizing and The Immune Elimination of Ovarian Cancer

Chemokines are Underestimated in Preventing the Metastasizing and The Immune Elimination of Ovarian Cancer

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Corresponding Author
Ruurd Torensma
Department of Tumorimmunology, Radboud Molecular Life Sciences, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, Netherlands

A B S T R A C T

Nowadays the positive immune involvement in the eradication of tumor cells is assigned to the adaptive immune response. By awakening of in vivo responding T cells that are suppressed by the tumor and prevents immunological cure of the cancer. Normally activated T cells are well-ordered by several late occurring inhibitors to contain the response to the unknown invaders and spare the normal cells. The tumor strengthens this inhibitory response to escape from immune elimination. Immunotherapy is to unleash the full capacity of the adaptive immune system by blocking this inhibitor response by monoclonal antibodies but with the potential drawback of autoimmune phenomena. Cytokines and chemokines became in oblivion after their suspected necrosis of the tumor (TNF) did not fulfil their initial hope. Ovarian cancer is in most cases already metastasized to the peritoneum and omentum. Here, we show that on the one hand chemokines produced by Th2, CD8 and NK cells inhibit cancer spreading and thus leads to a better operability and better survival. Chemokine receptors are expressed by the tumor that are a decoy by binding chemokines that normally should attract antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells that start an enforced T cell response to replace the exhausted T cells

Article Info

Article Type
Research Article
Publication history
Received: Mon 02, Dec 2019
Accepted: Wed 18, Dec 2019
Published: Mon 30, Dec 2019
Copyright
© 2021 Ruurd Torensma. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Hosting by Science Repository.
DOI: 10.31487/j.ACO.2019.04.04