Neuroprotection by Micronutrients and Cannabidiol (CBD) in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Corresponding AuthorKedar N. Prasad
Engage Global, 245 El Faisan Drive, San Rafael, California, USA
A B S T R A C T
The major objectives of this review are to elucidate the role of antioxidants and cannabidiol (CBD) in reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and glutamate levels, which contribute to the pathogenesis of human neurological diseases. Antioxidants act by: (a) donation of electrons to molecules with unpaired electrons to neutralize them, (b) activation of ROS-resistant Nrf2 to enhance the levels of antioxidant enzymes, (c) restoration of deficiency of antioxidants to normal levels, (d) alterations in the expression of microRNAs, which guide their respective mRNAs to translate protective proteins, and (e) prevention of the release and toxicity of glutamate. CBD acts by: (a) activating endocannabinoid system, which consists of anandamide and archidonoylglycerol, cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, and their synthesizing and degrading enzymes, (b) acting as an agonist to non-cannabinoid receptors, such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine, (c) acting as an inhibitor of serotonin re-uptake, and (d) acting as an antagonist to glutamate receptors. Since antioxidants and CBD act primarily by different mechanisms, it is proposed that combination of the two may be more effective than either individually. No review on this topic has been published. Pre-clinical and clinical studies are suggested to test the efficacy of proposed combination in selected neurodegenerative diseases.
Article TypeReview Article
Publication historyReceived: Sun 05, Apr 2020
Accepted: Fri 17, Apr 2020
Published: Tue 05, May 2020
Copyright© 2023 Kedar N. Prasad. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Hosting by Science Repository.